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This is the English version.
Translation into Serbo-Croatian language by Jovana Milutinovich from


1. Introduction
     1.1 C/C++ Specifics
     1.2 Pascal/Delphi Specifics
2. Overview over the Functions of CMATH
     2.1 Initialization of Complex Numbers
     2.2 Data-Type Interconversions
     2.3 Basic Complex Operations
     2.4 Arithmetic Operations
     2.5 Mathematical Functions
3. Error Handling
     3.1 General Error Handling of Complex Functions
          3.1.1 C/C++ Specifics
          3.1.1 Pascal/Delphi Specifics
     3.2 Writing Error Messages into a File
4. Syntax Reference
     4.1 Plain-C, Pascal/Delphi Functions
     4.2 Overloaded C++/Delphi Functions

1. Introduction

CMATH is a comprehensive library for complex-number arithmetics and mathematics, both in cartesian and in polar coordinates, for C/C++ and Pascal/Delphi compilers. CMATH is available as a stand-alone product. It is also included in the OptiVec package.

All functions may alternatively be called from classic C and Pascal/Delphi with type-specific function names (like cf_sin,   cd_exp,   pe_sqrt), or from C++ and Delphi with overloaded function names and operators (like sin,   exp,   sqrt,  operator +; operators only in C++). As far as possible, all functions have the same names in the Pascal/Delphi version as in the C/C++ version.

Superior speed, accuracy and safety are achieved through the implementation in Assembly language (as opposed to the compiled or inline code of available complex C++ class libraries). Only for the most simple tasks, alternative inline C++ functions are used in the C++ version.

As far as the scope of CMATH overlaps with the complex class implementations of Visual C++, C++ Builder (former Borland C++), and Delphi, CMATH is a high-quality replacement for the latter, which are all quite inefficient and inaccurate.

In contrast to the written-down-and-compiled textbook formulas of most other available complex libraries (including those coming with Visual C++ and the Borland compilers), the implementation of CMATH was guided by the following rules:

  1. Without any compromise, top priority is always given to the mathematically correct result, with the accuracy demanded for the respective data type. Especially for complex functions, this necessitates a very thorough treatment of many different situations. To this end, the various cases have to be distinguished with pedantic care. (Textbook formulas do not need to treat these situations separately, as they theoretically assume infinite accuracy of intermediate results; an actual implementation, however, has to work with the limited accuracy given by real-life processors.)
  2. Mathematical functions must be "safe" under all circumstances. They may for no reason simply crash, but have to perform a decent error treatment. This is true even - and perhaps especially - for seemingly nonsense arguments, with the single exception of the non-numbers INF and NAN, which occur themselves only as a result of serious errors in other functions.
  3. By all possible means, greatest execution speed must be attained. (After all, you did not buy your fast computer for nothing!)
  4. The program code has to be as compact as possible. However, in case of conflicts, faster execution speed is always given priority over smaller code size.

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1.1 C/C++ Specifics

The complex C++ classes and the C structs fComplex etc. are binary compatible with each other. This point may become important for large projects with mixed C and C++ modules. Existing C++ code which uses the complex class library, contained in <complex.h>, can be left unchanged, because the CMATH functions and data types are also binary compatible with those of <complex.h>. The single exception is the member function polar, which had to be replaced by magargtoc, as the word "polar" now denotes the complex classes in polar coordinates.

Here is a detailed description of how to use CMATH in your projects:

  1. In C++ modules, declare
    #include <newcplx.h>
    Then, the following six complex classes are defined:
    class complex<float>, class complex<double>, class complex<long double>, class polar<float>, class polar<double>, and class polar<long double>.

    The data types fComplex, dComplex, eComplex, fPolar, dPolar, and ePolar are defined as synonyms for these classes.
    In order to avoid the letter "L" (which is already over-used by long and unsigned long, the word extended is used as a synonym for long double in the Borland C++ version of CMATH. In the MSVC version, it is a synonym for double, as MSVC does not support 80-bit IEEE reals. Consequently, the complex data types of extended precision are named eComplex and ePolar.

  2. If you prefer to have the "classic" class complex of older releases of Borland C++, you have to declare
    before (!) including <newcplx.h>.
    In this case, only the class complex will be defined and gets the synonym dComplex. Here you will have no access to the complex-number functions of float and of extended precision, and all functions in polar coordinates are unavailable as well.
  3. For plain-C modules, you cannot include <newcplx.h>. Rather, please declare
    #include <cmath.h>
    If you are using only one level of floating-point precision, you may wish to include only one of the type-specific include-files: <cfmath.h>, <cdmath.h>, or <cemath.h>, respectively.
    The plain-C implementation of CMATH is based upon the following definitions of the complex data types:
    typedef struct { float Re, Im; } fComplex;
    typedef struct { double Re, Im; } dComplex;
    typedef struct { extended Re, Im; } eComplex;
    typedef struct { float Mag, Arg; } fPolar;
    typedef struct { double Mag, Arg; } dPolar;
    typedef struct { extended Mag, Arg; } ePolar;

    As described above, the data type extended is used as a synonym for long double (Embarcadero/Borland C++ version) or double (MSVC version).
  4. The constituent parts of the C++ classes are declared as public. They are named "Re" and "Im" in the cartesian classes, and "Mag" and "Arg" in the polar classes. This allows to access them as z.Re, z.Im, p.Mag, or p.Arg in C++ modules as well as in plain-C modules.
  5. For time-critical applications, we recommend to use the C rather than the C++ version of CMATH, as C/C++ compilers handle structs much more efficiently than classes. To use the C version with your C++ modules, please note the following points:
    • include <cmath.h> instead of <newcplx.h>
    • for initialization, assign the real/imaginary or Mag/Arg parts directly (e.g., z.Re = 3; z.Im = 5; ) or use the functions fcplx, dcplx, ecplx, fpolr, dpolr, epolr. The constructors complex(), fComplex(), polar(), fPolar(), etc. are not available.
    • if you do a C++ compile on modules with <cmath.h> included, you have the choice between calling CMATH functions by their type-specific names (like cf_sin,   cd_exp), or by their overloaded C++ names (e.g., sin,   exp). On some occasions, you might be forced to use the type-specific names in order to resolve ambiguities.

Back to CMATH Table of Contents   OptiVec home 

1.2 Delphi Specifics

CMATH for Delphi defines six complex data types:
type fComplex = record Re, Im: Single; end;
type dComplex = record Re, Im: Double; end;
type eComplex = record Re, Im: Extended; end;
type fPolar = record Mag, Arg: Float; end;
type dPolar = record Mag, Arg: Double; end;
type ePolar = record Mag, Arg: Extended; end;

The reason why the single-precision type gets the name fComplex instead of sComplex is that the letter "s" is already over-used by ShortInt and SmallInt in Pascal/Delphi. Therefore, this name is derived from the C/C++ analogue of Single, which is float.

The CMATH-Delphi data types are binary compatible with those of the C/C++ versions.

The type-specific function names are the same as in the plain-C version. The syntax, however, is somewhat different, as C supports complex numbers (defined as structs) as return values, whereas Pascal and early Delphi versions originally did not allow records to be returned by a function (this is allowed only in Delphi). Therefore, they are passed as var arguments to the complex functions, e.g.
procedure cf_sin( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

The overloaded function names are the same as in the C++ version. Here, the results are treated as true return values, e.g.
function sin( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

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2. Overview over the Functions of CMATH

In the following, it is often only the fComplex or fPolar version of a function that is explicitly mentioned. The versions for dComplex / dPolar, and eComplex / ePolar are always exactly analogous.
All functions for the languages C and Pascal/Delphi have a prefix denoting the data type on which the function works:
"cf_" or "pf_" stands for single precision (arguments and return values of the data types fComplex, fPolar, sometimes together with float),
"cd_" or "pd_" stands for double precision (arguments and return values of the data types dComplex, dPolar, sometimes together with double), whereas
"ce_" and "pe_" denote extended-precision functions.

In C++ and Delphi, synonyms are defined for all these functions. The synonyms do not have a prefix, since the data type information is implicitly handled by the compiler. The overloaded function names are mostly identical to those found in the complex class libraries (if the respective function exists there). Note, however, that the member function polar had to be replaced by magargtoc, as the name "polar" is now reserved for the polar classes.

C++ only: If you wish to use the C function names in your C++ modules, be sure to include <cmath.h> instead of <newcplx.h>.

2.1. Initialization of Complex Numbers

In the following, we denote the complex classes by by their short names, fComplex, fPolar, etc. In C++, you can always use the template nomenclature instead, writing "complex<float>" wherever "fComplex" is written here, and so on for all other complex types and classes.

Complex numbers are initialized by separately assigning a value to the imaginary and real parts, e.g.:
z.Re = 3.0; z.Im = 5.7;
p.Mag = 8.8; p.Arg = 3.14;

(Of course, for Pascal/Delphi, the assignment operator is written ":=").
Alternatively, the same initialization can be accomplished by the functions fcplx or fpolr:
z = fcplx( 3.0, 5.7 );
p = fpolr( 4.0, 0.7 );

fcplx( z, 3.0, 5.7 );
fpolr( p, 3.0, 5.7 );

For double-precision complex numbers, use dcplx and dpolr, for extended-precision complex numbers, use ecplx and epolr.

2.2. Data-Type Interconversions

Interconversions between the various complex types are performed via the functions:
cftocd,  cdtocf,   cftoce,  cetocf,   cdtoce,  cetocdup- or down-conversion of accuracy within the cartesian-complex types
pftopd,  pdtopf,   pftope,  petopf,   pdtope,  petopdup- or down-conversion of accuracy within the polar-complex types
cftopf,  cftopd,  cftope,
cdtopf,  cdtopd,  cdtope,
cetopf,  cetopd,  cetope
conversion from cartesian into polar complex
pftocf,  pftocd,  pftoce,
pdtocf,  pdtocd,  pdtoce,
petocf,  petocd,  petoce
conversion from polar into cartesian complex
OVERFLOW conditions in the course of down-conversions are silently handled by setting the result to the largest value possible.
C++ only: For C++ modules, there are several overloaded constructors as an alternative to the above functions:
basic forms:
   fComplex fComplex( float RePart, float ImPart=0 );
   fComplex fComplex( dComplex );
   fComplex fComplex( eComplex );
   fPolar fPolar( float MagPart, float ArgPart=0 );
   fPolar fPolar( dPolar );
   fPolar fPolar( ePolar );

interconversion cartesian <--> polar:
   fComplex fComplex( fPolar );
   fComplex fComplex( dPolar );
   fComplex fComplex( ePolar );
   fPolar fPolar( fComplex );
   fPolar fPolar( dComplex );
   fPolar fPolar( eComplex );

Similarly to the constructors fComplex() and fPolar(), also dComplex(), dPolar(), eComplex, and ePolar() exist in overloaded versions performing the same tasks for the classes dComplex, dPolar, eComplex, and ePolar, respectively. As mentioned above, OVERFLOW conditions in the course of down-conversions are silently handled by setting the result to the largest value possible.

A special constructor for polar numbers is
fPolar pf_principal( fPolar __p );
and, for C++ only, its overloaded form for two separate real input numbers
fPolar principal( float Mag, float Arg );
These functions reduce the input Arg to the range -p < Arg <= +p. You might recall that each complex number has an infinite number of representations in polar coordinates, with the angles differing by an integer multiple of 2 p. The representation with -p < Arg <= +p is called the principal value.
Please note that these are the only polar functions reducing the output to the principal value. All others accept and return arguments whose angles may fall outside this range.

The conversion between cartesian and polar format involves transcedental functions and is, therefore, quite time-consuming. It is true that multiplications are faster in polar coordinates, whereas additions are much faster in Cartesian. The difference, however, is so much smaller than the cost of switching back and forth between the different representations, that we recommend you stay in general with the cartesian format. Only in the following cases, the conversion really makes sense:

  1. You have only multiplications and related math functions (like squaresqrtipow). Then, you should start out with polar coordinates.
  2. You have to call the complex exponential function. In this case, cf_exptop brings you into polar coordinates in a very natural manner.
  3. You are in polar coordinates and have to calculate the logarithm. In this case, pf_logtoc (or similarly pf_log2toc,   pf_log10toc) brings you "down" to the cartesian representation.

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2.3 Basic Complex Operations

The following basic complex operations are defined in CMATH
cartesian C/Pascal/Delphi functionpolar C/Pascal/Delphi function overloaded C++/Delphi functionexplanation
cf_conjpf_conj conjcomplex-conjugate form
cf_negpf_neg neg (or -)negation
cf_realpf_real realextraction of the real part
cf_imagpf_imag imagextraction of the imaginary part
cf_magargtocN.A. magargtocconversion of polar coordinates, entered as separate real numbers, into cartesian format
N.A.pf_reimtop reimtopconversion of complex coordinates, entered as separate real numbers, into polar format
cf_abspf_abs absabsolute value (magnitude of the pointer in the complex plane; this is treated as a math function with error handling)
cf_argpf_arg argargument (angle of the pointer in the complex plane) 
cf_normpf_norm normnorm (defined here as the square of the absolute value) 
N.A.pf_principal principalprincipal value, with -p < Arg <= +p
(The double and extended-precision versions are exactly analogous to the cf_ / pf_ version)

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2.4 Arithmetic Operations

Only C++ and Delphi from version 2006 on: The following set of operators is available for all of the three cartesian complex classes:
    +   -   *   /   +=   -=   *=   /=   ==   !=
For the polar complex classes, we have:
    *   /   *=    /=    ==    !=
These operators exist also for "mixed" arguments, where one argument is complex, the other real and where the arguments are of different floating-point accuracies.
Delphi only:Additionally, the following overloaded functions can be used for arithmetic operations:
add     sub     mul     divide
They work for two complex arguments or for one complex and one real argument.

Additionally, all arithmetic operations of complex numbers are implemented as functions which actually provide the most efficient implementation:
cf_addN.A. addition of two complex numbers
cf_addReN.A. addition of a complex number and a real number
cf_subN.A. subtraction of two complex numbers (first operand minus the second operand)
cf_subReN.A. subtraction of a real number from a complex number
cf_subrReN.A. subtraction of a complex number from a real number
cf_mulpf_mul multiplication of two complex numbers
cf_mulRepf_mulRe multiplication of a complex number and a real number
cf_divpf_div division of two complex numbers (first operand divided by the second operand)
cf_divRepf_divRe division of a complex number by a real number
cf_divrRepf_divrRe division of a real number by a complex number

(similarly the double- and extended-precision versions) 

The assignment operator "=" or ":=" is the only operator defined also in plain-C for complex numbers.

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2.5 Mathematical Functions

CMATH contains all mathematical functions you would find in the complex class libraries of C++, along with several additional ones:
cartesian C/Pascal/Delphi functionpolar C/Pascal/Delphi functionoverloaded C++/Delphi function formulaexplanation
cf_abspf_absabs ry = | zx |absolute value
cf_acosN.A.acos zy = acos( zx )arcus cosine function
cf_asinN.A.asin zy = asin( zx )arcus sine function
cf_atanN.A.atan zy = atan( zx )arcus tangent function
cf_cosN.A.cos zy = cos( zx )cosine
cf_coshN.A.cosh zy = cosh( zx )hyperbolic cosine
cf_cubicpf_cubiccubic zy = zx3third power
cf_expcf_exptopexp zy = exp( zx )exponential function
cf_invpf_invinv zy = 1.0 / zxinverse
cf_ipowpf_ipowipow zy = zxninteger power
cf_lnpf_lntocln zy = ln( zx )natural logarithm
cf_logpf_logtoclog zy = ln( zx )identical to cf_ln,  pf_lntoc,  ln
cf_log2pf_log2toclog2 zy = lb( zx )binary logarithm
cf_log10pf_log10toclog10 zy = lg( zx )decadic logarithm
cf_powN.A.pow zy = zxzexparbitrary power
cf_powReBaseN.A.pow, powReBase zy = rzxreal base to complex power
cf_powReExpopf_powReExpopow, powReExpo zy = zxrreal power of complex base
cf_quarticpf_quarticquartic zy = zx4fourth power
cf_sinN.A.sin zy = sin( zx )sine
cf_sinhN.A.sinh zy = sinh( zx )hyperbolic sine
cf_squarepf_squaresquare zy = zx2square
cf_sqrtpf_sqrtsqrt zy = sqrt( zx )square root
cf_tanN.A.tan zy = tan( zx )tangent
cf_tanhN.A.tanh zy = tanh( zx )hyperbolic tangent

As noted above, the exponential and logarithm functions provide a natural transition between cartesian and polar coordinates. While there are exp and log functions for fComplex as argument and as return value, cf_exptop takes an fComplex argument and returns fPolar. In the opposite direction, pf_logtoc takes an fPolar argument and returns fComplex.

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3. Error Handling

3.1 General Error Handling of Complex Functions

The error handling of complex functions follows the rules employed generally also for real-number functions and operations. For all arithmetic operations, the design of the algorithms eliminates the danger of failure due to irregular intermediate results. Overflowing or otherwise irregular final results, however, will lead to a hardware interrupt being generated and, as a consequence, to a program abort.

In contrast to the arithmetic operations, all mathematical functions perform a tight error checking. All error messages eventually generated use the C/Pascal name (rather than the overloaded C++/Delphi name) of the failing function.

3.1.1 C/C++ Specifics

All error conditions in CMATH math functions are handled the old-fashioned, but most flexible and efficient way via _matherr (for fComplex and dComplex functions) and _matherrl (for eComplex functions; 32-bit Borland C++ only). The Re or Mag part of the complex argument, causing an error is stored in e->x and the Im or Arg part in e->y.

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3.1.2 Pascal/Delphi Specifics

How CMATH handles floating-point errors in the complex math functions is defined by a call to V_setFPErrorHandling. A number of pre-defined constants fperrXXX is available for the construction of the desired error-handling mode:
fperrIgnore0Ignore all floating-point errors: handle them silently, do not print a message, continue program execution
fperrNoteDOMAIN$0001Print a message in case of a DOMAIN error
fperrNoteSING$0002Print a message in case of a SING error
fperrNoteOVERFLOW$0003Print a message in case of an OVERFLOW error
fperrNoteTLOSS$0004Print a message in case of a TLOSS error
fperrAbortDOMAIN$0101Abort program in case of a DOMAIN error
fperrAbortSING$0202Abort program in case of a SING error
fperrAbortOVERFLOW$0303Abort program in case of an OVERFLOW error
fperrAbortTLOSS$0404Abort program in case of a TLOSS error
fperrDefaultHandling$0107Same as fperrAbortDOMAIN or fperrNoteSING or fperrNoteOVERFLOW
V_setFPErrorHandling( fperrAbortDOMAIN + fperrAbortSING + fperrAbortOVERFLOW + fperrNoteTLOSS );
In this example, program execution will be aborted (with the appropriate message) in the case of the most severe errors, DOMAIN and SING. In the case of OVERFLOW and TLOSS errors, a warning will be displayed, but program execution will be continued with default results set by the respective functions where the errors occur. The repeated occurrence of the same type of error within one and the same function will lead to only one message being generated. Subsequent errors will be treated silently.

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3.2 Writing Error Messages into a File

The function V_setErrorEventFile provides a means to decide if you wish your error messages to appear on the screen and/or in a log file. This function needs as arguments the desired name of your event file and a switch named ScreenAndFile which decides if you wish to have error messages printed simultaneously into the file and onto the screen (ScreenAndFile = TRUE (non-zero)) or exclusively into the file (ScreenAndFile = FALSE (0)).

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4. Syntax Reference

Except for the data-type conversion functions, only the float / fComplex / fPolar syntax is given. The syntax of the functions for double and extended precisions is exactly analogous.
If you chose the "classic" class complex, this is also similar. Just replace "float" by "double" and "fComplex" by "complex". No polar functions are available in the "classic" class complex, neither do any of the type-casting operators and interconversion functions exist, if there is only one type.

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4.1 Plain-C, Pascal/Delphi Functions

For the functions of double / dComplex / dPolar and extended / eComplex / ePolar precision, the prefixes are cd_, pd_, ce_, and pe_, respectively.

float cf_abs( fComplex __z );
function cf_abs( zx:fComplex ): Single;
float pf_abs( fPolar __p );
function pf_abs( px:fPolar ): Single;

fComplex cf_acos( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_acos( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_add( fComplex __x, fComplex __y );
procedure cf_add( var zz:fComplex; zx, zy:fComplex );

fComplex cf_addRe( fComplex __x, float __yRe );
procedure cf_addRe( var zz:fComplex; zx:fComplex; yRe:Single );

float cf_arg( fComplex __z );
function cf_arg( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float pf_arg( fPolar __z );
function pf_arg( px:fPolar ): Single;

fComplex cf_asin( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_asin( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_atan( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_atan( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

eComplex cdtoce( dComplex __zd );
procedure cdtoce( var zy:eComplex; zx:dComplex );

fComplex cdtocf( dComplex __zd );
procedure cdtocf( var zy:fComplex; zx:dComplex );

dPolar cdtopd( dComplex __zd );
procedure cdtopd( var py:dPolar; zx:eComplex );

ePolar cdtope( dComplex __zd );
procedure cdtope( var py:ePolar; zx:eComplex );

fPolar cdtopf( dComplex __zd );
procedure cdtope( var py:fPolar; zx:eComplex );

dComplex cetocd( eComplex __ze );
procedure cetocd( var zy:dComplex; zx:eComplex );

fComplex cetocf( eComplex __ze );
procedure cetocf( var zy:fComplex; zx:eComplex );

dPolar cetopd( eComplex __ze );
procedure cetopd( var py:dPolar; zx:eComplex );

ePolar cetope( eComplex __ze );
procedure cetope( var py:ePolar; zx:eComplex );

fPolar cetopf( eComplex __ze );
procedure cetopf( var py:fPolar; zx:eComplex );

dComplex cftocd( fComplex __zf );
procedure cftocd( var zy:dComplex; zx:fComplex );

eComplex cftoce( fComplex __zf );
procedure cftoce( var zy:eComplex; zx:fComplex );

dPolar cftopd( fComplex __zf );
procedure cftopd( var py:dPolar; zx:fComplex );

ePolar cftope( fComplex __zf );
procedure cftope( var py:ePolar; zx:fComplex );

fPolar cftopf( fComplex __zf );
procedure cftopf( var py:fPolar; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_conj( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_conj( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar pf_conj( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_conj( var py:fPolar; px:fPolar );

fComplex cf_cos( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_cos( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_cosh( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_cosh( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_cubic( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_cubic( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar pf_cubic( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_cubic( var py:fPolar; px:fPolar );

fComplex cf_div( fComplex __x, fComplex __y );
procedure cf_div( var zz:fComplex; zx, zy:fComplex );

fPolar pf_div( fPolar __x, fPolar __y );
procedure pf_div( var pz:fPolar; px, py:fPolar );

fComplex cf_divRe( fComplex __x, float __yRe ); /* x / yRe */
procedure cf_divRe( var zz:fComplex; zx:fComplex; yRe:Single );

fPolar pf_divRe( fPolar __x, float __yRe ); /* x / yRe */
procedure pf_divRe( var pz:fPolar; px:fPolar; yRe:Single );

fComplex cf_divrRe( fComplex __x, float __yRe ); /* yRe / x */
procedure cf_divrRe( var zz:fComplex; zx:fComplex; yRe:Single );

fPolar pf_divrRe( fPolar __x, float __yRe ); /* yRe / x */
procedure pf_divrRe( var pz:fPolar; px:fPolar; yRe:Single );

fComplex cf_exp( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_exp( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar cf_exptop( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_exptop( var py:fPolar; zx:fComplex );

fComplex fcplx( float __ReVal, float __ImVal);
procedure fcplx( var zy:fComplex; xRe, xIm:Single );

fPolar fpolr( float __MagVal, float __ArgVal);
procedure fpolr( var py:fPolar; xMag, xArg:Single );

float cf_imag( fComplex __z );
function cf_imag( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float pf_imag( fPolar __p );
function pf_imag( px:fPolar ): Single;

fComplex cf_inv( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_inv( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar pf_inv( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_inv( var py:fPolar; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_ipow( fComplex __z, int __exponent );
procedure cf_ipow( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex; exponent:Integer );

fPolar pf_ipow( fPolar __p, int __exponent );
procedure pf_ipow( var py:fPolar; px:fPolar; exponent:Integer );

fComplex cf_ln( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_ln( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex pf_lntoc( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_lntoc( var zy:fComplex; zx:fPolar );

fComplex cf_log( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_log( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex pf_logtoc( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_logtoc( var zy:fComplex; zx:fPolar );

fComplex cf_log2( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_log2( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex pf_log2toc( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_log2toc( var zy:fComplex; zx:fPolar );

fComplex cf_log10( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_log10( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex pf_log10toc( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_log10toc( var zy:fComplex; zx:fPolar );

fComplex cf_magargtoc( float __mag, float __angle );
procedure cf_magargtoc( var zy:fComplex; mag, angle:Single );

fComplex cf_mul( fComplex __x, fComplex __y );
procedure cf_mul( var zz:fComplex; zx, zy:fComplex );

fPolar pf_mul( fPolar __x, fPolar __y );
procedure pf_mul( var zz:fPolar; zx, zy:fPolar );

fComplex cf_mulRe( fComplex __x, float __yRe );
procedure cf_mulRe( var zz:fComplex; zx:fComplex; yRe:Single );

fPolar pf_mulRe( fPolar __x, float __yRe );
procedure pf_mulRe( var zz:fPolar; zx:fPolar; yRe:Single );

fComplex cf_neg( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_neg( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar pf_neg( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_neg( var py:fPolar; px:fPolar );

float cf_norm( fComplex __z );
function cf_norm( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float pf_norm( fPolar __p );
function pf_norm( px:fPolar ): Single;

dComplex pdtocd( dPolar __pd );
procedure pdtocd( var zy:dComplex; px:dPolar );

eComplex pdtoce( dPolar __pd );
procedure pdtoce( var zy:eComplex; px:dPolar );

fComplex pdtocf( dPolar __pd );
procedure pdtocf( var zy:fComplex; px:dPolar );

ePolar pdtope( dPolar __pd );
procedure pdtope( var zy:ePolar; zx:dPolar );

fPolar pdtopf( dPolar __pd );
procedure pdtopf( var zy:fPolar; zx:dPolar );

dComplex petocd( ePolar __pe );
procedure petocd( var zy:dComplex; px:ePolar );

eComplex petoce( ePolar __pe );
procedure petoce( var zy:eComplex; px:ePolar );

fComplex petocf( ePolar __pe );
procedure petocf( var zy:fComplex; px:ePolar );

dPolar petopd( ePolar __pe );
procedure petopd( var zy:dPolar; zx:ePolar );

fPolar petopf( ePolar __pe );
procedure petopf( var zy:fPolar; zx:ePolar );

dComplex pftocd( fPolar __pf );
procedure pftocd( var zy:dComplex; px:fPolar );

eComplex pftoce( fPolar __pf );
procedure pftoce( var zy:eComplex; px:fPolar );

fComplex pftocf( fPolar __pf );
procedure pftocf( var zy:fComplex; px:fPolar );

dPolar pftopd( fPolar __pf );
procedure pftopd( var zy:dPolar; zx:fPolar );

ePolar pftope( fPolar __pf );
procedure pftope( var zy:ePolar; zx:fPolar );

fComplex cf_polar( float mag, float arg ); /* same as cf_magargtoc */
procedure cf_polar( var zy:fComplex; mag, arg:Single );

fComplex cf_pow( fComplex __base, fComplex __exponent );
procedure cf_pow( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex; exponent:Integer );

fComplex cf_powReBase( float __base, fComplex __exponent );
procedure cf_powReBase( var zy:fComplex; base:Single; exponent:fComplex );

fComplex cf_powReExpo( fComplex __base, float __exponent );
procedure cf_powReExpo( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex; exponent:Single );

fPolar pf_powReExpo( fPolar __base, float __exponent );
procedure pf_powReExpo( var py:fPolar; px:fPolar; exponent:Single );

fComplex cf_quartic( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_quartic( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar pf_quartic( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_quartic( var py:fPolar; zx:fPolar );

float cf_real( fComplex __z );
function cf_real( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float pf_real( fPolar __p );
function pf_real( px:fPolar ): Single;

fComplex cf_sin( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_sin( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_sinh( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_sinh( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_square( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_square( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar pf_square( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_square( var py:fPolar; zx:fPolar );

fComplex cf_sqrt( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_sqrt( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fPolar pf_sqrt( fPolar __p );
procedure pf_sqrt( var py:fPolar; px:fPolar );

fComplex cf_sub( fComplex __x, fComplex __y );
procedure cf_sub( var zz:fComplex; zx, zy:fComplex );

fComplex cf_subRe( fComplex __x, float __yRe ); /* x - yRe */
procedure cf_subRe( var zz:fComplex; zx:fComplex; yRe:Single );

fComplex cf_subrRe( fComplex __x, float __yRe ); /* yRe - x */
procedure cf_subrRe( var zz:fComplex; zx:fComplex; yRe:Single );

fComplex cf_tan( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_tan( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

fComplex cf_tanh( fComplex __z );
procedure cf_tanh( var zy:fComplex; zx:fComplex );

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4.2 Overloaded C++/Delphi Functions

float abs( fComplex _z );
function abs( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float abs( fPolar _p );
function abs( px:fPolar ): Single;

fComplex acos( fComplex _z );
function acos( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

function add( zx, zy:fComplex ): fComplex;
function add( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function add( yRe:Single; zx:fComplex ): fComplex;
function addRe( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;

float arg( fComplex _z );
function arg( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float arg( fPolar _p );
function arg( px:fPolar ): Single;

fComplex asin( fComplex _z );
function asin( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex atan( fComplex _z );
function atan( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex conj( fComplex _z );
function conj( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar conj( fPolar _p );
function conj( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

fComplex cos( fComplex _z );
function cos( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex cosh( fComplex _z );
function cosh( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex cubic( fComplex _z );
function cubic( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar cubic( fPolar _p );
function cubic( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

function divide( zx, zy:fComplex ): fComplex;
function divide( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function divide( yRe:Single; zx:fComplex ): fComplex;
function divide( px, py:fPolar ): fPolar;
function divide( px:fPolar; yRe:Single ): fPolar;
function divide( yRe:Single; px:fPolar ): fPolar;

function divRe( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function divRe( px:fPolar; yRe:Single ): fPolar;
function divrRe( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function divrRe( px:fPolar; yRe:Single ): fPolar;

fComplex exp( fComplex _z );
function exp( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar exptop( fComplex _z );
function exptop( zx:fComplex ): fPolar;

fComplex fComplex( float Re_part, float Im_part=0 );
fComplex fComplex( dComplex cd );
fComplex fComplex( eComplex ce ); // type-casting constructors
fComplex fComplex( fPolar pf ); // interconversion from polar
fComplex fComplex( dPolar pd );
fComplex fComplex( ePolar pe );

float imag(); // to be used as zim = z.imag();
float imag( fComplex _z ); // to be used as zim = imag( z );
function imag( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float imag( fPolar _p );
function imag( px:fPolar ): Single;
fComplex inv( fComplex _z );
function inv( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar inv( fPolar _p );
function inv( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

fComplex ipow( fComplex __base, int __expon );
function ipow( zx:fComplex; exponent:Integer ): fComplex;

fPolar ipow( fPolar __base, int __expon );
function ipow( px:fPolar; exponent:Integer ): fPolar;

fComplex ln( fComplex _z );
function ln( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex lntoc( fPolar _p );
function lntoc( px:fPolar ): fComplex;

fComplex log( fComplex _z );
function log( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex logtoc( fPolar _p );
function logtoc( px:fPolar ): fComplex;

fComplex log2( fComplex _z );
function log2( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex log2toc( fPolar _p );
function log2toc( px:fPolar ): fComplex;

fComplex log10( fComplex _z );
function log10( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex log10toc( fPolar _p );
function log10toc( px:fPolar ): fComplex;

fComplex magargtoc( float _mag, float _angle );
function magargtoc( mag, angle:Single ): fComplex;

function mul( zx, zy:fComplex ): fComplex;
function mul( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function mul( yRe:Single; zx:fComplex ): fComplex;
function mul( px, py:fPolar ): fPolar;
function mul( px:fPolar; yRe:Single ): fPolar;
function mul( yRe:Single; px:fPolar ): fPolar;

function mulRe( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function mulRe( px:fPolar; yRe:Single ): fPolar;

fComplex neg( fComplex _z );
function neg( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar neg( fPolar _p );
function neg( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

float norm( fComplex _z );
function norm( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float norm( fPolar _p );
function norm( px:fPolar ): Single;

fComplex pow( fComplex __base, fComplex __expon);
fComplex pow( float __base, fComplex __expon);
fComplex pow( fComplex __base, float __expon );
function pow( zx, exponent:fComplex ): fComplex;
function pow( zx:fComplex; exponent:Single ): fComplex;
function pow( base:Single; exponent:fComplex ): fComplex;
function pow( px:fPolar; exponent:Single ): fPolar;

fComplex powReBase( float __base, fComplex __expon );
function powReBase( base:Single; exponent:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex powReExpo( fComplex __base, float __expon );
function powReExpo( zx:fComplex; exponent:Single ): fComplex;

fPolar powReExpo( fPolar __base, float __expon );
function powReExpo( px:fPolar; exponent:Single ): fPolar;

fPolar principal( fPolar _p );
fPolar principal( floag __mag, float __arg );
function principal( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

fComplex quartic( fComplex _z );
function quartic( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar quartic( fPolar _p );
function quartic( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

float z.real(); // to be used as zre = z.real();
float real( fComplex _z ); // to be used as zre = real ( _z );
function real( zx:fComplex ): Single;

float real( fPolar _p );
function real( px:fPolar ): Single;

fPolar reimtop( float _re, float _im );
function reimtop( re, im:Single ): fPolar;

fComplex sin( fComplex _z );
function sin( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex sinh( fComplex _z );
function sinh( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex sqrt( fComplex _z );
function sqrt( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar sqrt( fPolar _p );
function sqrt( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

fComplex square( fComplex _z );
function square( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fPolar square( fPolar _z );
function square( px:fPolar ): fPolar;

function sub( zx, zy:fComplex ): fComplex;
function sub( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function sub( yRe:Single; zx:fComplex ): fComplex;
function subRe( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;
function subrRe( zx:fComplex; yRe:Single ): fComplex;

fComplex tan( fComplex _z );
function tan( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

fComplex tanh( fComplex _z );
function tanh( zx:fComplex ): fComplex;

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Last modified: 25 August 2013